Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, PGD

General Information

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is the genetic analysis of cells from an embryo prior to its transfer to the uterus. This test can be performed during the course of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The cells may be taken at different points in time after fertilization: immediately after (polar body diagnosis), or on the 5th day after fertilization (trophectoderm from an expanded blastocyst).

Polar bodies form during the maturation of the ovum. In polar body analysis, two polar bodies (1st and 2nd polar bodies, PB1 and PB2) are analyzed as representative of the genetic material in the ovum. This enables testing for severe genetic diseases or chromosomal aberrations inherited from the mother.

The trophectoderm (TE) is part of an expanded blastocyst. It forms on the 5th day after fertilization and develops into chorionic villi after transfer of the blastocyst to the uterus. Trophectoderm cells may be analyzed in place of embryonic cells and represent both the maternal and the paternal genetic material in the embryo. The analysis of these cells falls under the German Preimplantation Diagnostics Act.

Requesting PGD

It is imperative to arrange diagnostics with us in advance so that we can coordinate the time-sensitive aspects of the procedure. If you are interested in requesting PGD, please email our Cytogenetic Laboratory Director Udo Koehler, PhD at